Written by David Bernstein, MD, FACP, FACG Friday, 18 December 2009 00:00
As another year ends and a new year begins, it is time to assess which preventative health measures we as individuals should address in the upcoming new year. For those people turning 50 years of age, it is time to address colon cancer screening. This topic is so important that although we discussed this somewhat earlier this year, I believe that it is worth revisiting. The following three paragraphs come from the flier announcing the National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference on Colorectal Cancer Screening to be held in Bethesda on February 2-4, 2010. I encourage any interested party to attend this meeting.
“Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Approximately 50,000 people in the United States are expected to die from colorectal cancer in 2009. Colonic polyps, abnormal growths of tissue on the inner lining of the colon, are relatively common findings in men and women 50 years and older. Most of these growths are not cancerous, but one type of polyp, known as an adenoma, can develop into colorectal cancer. Screening tests for colorectal cancer generally either seek to identify and remove adenomas or examine the stool for signs of early cancer in people who have no symptoms. A range of colorectal cancer screening tests are available in the United States. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force currently recommends that average-risk adults ages 50 to 75 years undergo screening for colorectal cancer with annual fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy (internal examination of the lower part of the large intestine) every five years, or colonoscopy (internal examination of the entire large intestine) every 10 years. Additional tests that may be used for colorectal cancer screening include computed tomography (CT) colonography and fecal DNA testing.
Although colorectal cancer is an important cause of mortality in the United States, screening for this disease is currently underutilized among eligible individuals. Despite evidence supporting the value of screening, in 2005 only 50 percent of U.S. adults ages 50 and older had been screened according to guidelines. Rates of screening for colorectal cancer are consistently lower than those for other common cancers, particularly breast and cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other preventive services, in colorectal cancer screening there are multiple test options from which to choose, and patients and providers may have varying preferences for or access to the tests. Successful completion of colorectal cancer screening requires effort on the part of the patient to obtain stool samples for testing or to clean the colon in preparation for endoscopic examination. Test options may also differ in cost and availability for a given community. Patient, provider, and healthcare system characteristics may each play a unique role in influencing the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening.
Adding to the complexity of this issue, colorectal cancer screening may be overused or misused in certain situations. Despite uncertainty regarding the benefit of removing small polyps, many people undergoing colonoscopy have all identified growths removed. This may put them at increased risk for possible complications from these procedures, which can include rectal bleeding or colonic perforation (a tear in the wall of the intestine that can cause a serious abdominal infection). In addition, follow-up testing of individuals who have previously had polyps removed may occur more frequently than available evidence supports, which again may put people at risk for complications and have both cost and capacity implications for the healthcare system.”
Colorectal cancer is fully preventable if people take the initiative and go for screening. The challenges ahead to our health care system and what it will be able to afford in the future is to ensure that there is appropriate utilization of current tools available for colorectal cancer screening.
(Disclaimer: The views and opinions represented are those of the author and meant for informative purposes only. For your specific questions, consult your physician.)